Solution manual for Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction 9th edition by William D. Callister

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Solution manual for Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction 9th edition by William D. Callister

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Description Solution manual for Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction 9th edition by William D. Callister Table of Contants 1. Introduction 1 Learning Objectives 2 1.1 Historical Perspective 2 1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 2 1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? 4 Case Study—Liberty Ship Failures 5 1.4 Classification of Materials 6 Case Study—Carbonated Beverage Containers 11 1.5 Advanced Materials 12 1.6 Modern Materialsâ€?Needs 14 1.7 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Correlations 15 Summary 17 References 17 Questions 18 2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding 19 Learning Objectives 20 2.1 Introduction 20 ATOMIC STRUCTURE 20 2.2 Fundamental Concepts 20 2.3 Electrons in Atoms 22 2.4 The Periodic Table 28 ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS 30 2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies 30 2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds 32 2.7 Secondary Bonding or van der Waals Bonding 39 Materials of Importance—Water (Its Volume Expansion Upon Freezing) 42 2.8 Mixed Bonding 43 2.9 Molecules 44 2.10 Bonding Type-Materials Classification Correlations 44 Summary 45 Equation Summary 46 List of Symbols 46 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 47 Important Terms and Concepts 47 References 47 Questions and Problems 48 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 50 3. The Structure of Crystalline Solids 51 Learning Objectives 52 3.1 Introduction 52 CRYSTAL STRUCTURES 52 3.2 Fundamental Concepts 52 3.3 Unit Cells 53 3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures 54 3.5 Density Computations 60 3.6 Polymorphism and Allotropy 60 Materials of Importance—Tin (Its Allotropic Transformation) 61 3.7 Crystal Systems 62 CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POINTS, DIRECTIONS, AND PLANES 64 3.8 Point Coordinates 64 3.9 Crystallographic Directions 67 3.10 Crystallographic Planes 75 3.11 Linear and Planar Densities 81 3.12 Close-Packed Crystal Structures 82 CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 84 3.13 Single Crystals 84 3.14 Polycrystalline Materials 84 3.15 Anisotropy 86 3.16 X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of Crystal Structures 87 3.17 Noncrystalline Solids 92 Summary 93 Equation Summary 95 List of Symbols 96 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 96 Important Terms and Concepts 97 References 97 Questions and Problems 97 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 104 4. Imperfections in Solids 105 Learning Objectives 106 4.1 Introduction 106 POINT DEFECTS 106 4.2 Vacancies and Self-Interstitials 106 4.3 Impurities in Solids 108 4.4 Specification of Composition 111 MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS 115 4.5 Dislocations—Linear Defects 115 4.6 Interfacial Defects 118 Materials of Importance—Catalysts (and Surface Defects) 121 4.7 Bulk or Volume Defects 122 4.8 Atomic Vibrations 122 MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 123 4.9 Basic Concepts of Microscopy 123 4.10 Microscopic Techniques 124 4.11 Grain-Size Determination 128 Summary 131 Equation Summary 132 List of Symbols 133 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 134 Important Terms and Concepts 135 References 135 Questions and Problems 135 Design Problems 138 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 139 5. Diffusion 140 Learning Objectives 141 5.1 Introduction 141 5.2 Diffusion Mechanisms 142 5.3 Fick’s First Law 143 5.4 Fick’s Second Law—Nonsteady-State Diffusion 145 5.5 Factors That Influence Diffusion 149 5.6 Diffusion in Semiconducting Materials 154 Material of Importance—Aluminum for Integrated Circuit Interconnects 157 5.7 Other Diffusion Paths 158 Summary 158 Equation Summary 159 List of Symbols 160 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 160 Important Terms and Concepts 162 References 162 Questions and Problems 162 Design Problems 166 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 167 6. Mechanical Properties of Metals 168 Learning Objectives 169 6.1 Introduction 169 6.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain 170 ELASTIC DEFORMATION 174 6.3 Stress–Strain Behavior 174 6.4 Anelasticity 177 6.5 Elastic Properties of Materials 177 PLASTIC DEFORMATION 180 6.6 Tensile Properties 180 6.7 True Stress and Strain 187 6.8 Elastic Recovery After Plastic Deformation 190 6.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional Deformation 191 6.10 Hardness 191 PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY FACTORS 197 6.11 Variability of Material Properties 197 6.12 Design/Safety Factors 199 Summary 203 Equation Summary 205 List of Symbols 205 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 206 Important Terms and Concepts 206 References 207 Questions and Problems 207 Design Problems 213 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 214 7. Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms 216 Learning Objectives 217 7.1 Introduction 217 DISLOCATIONS AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION 217 7.2 Basic Concepts 218 7.3 Characteristics of Dislocations 220 7.4 Slip Systems 221 7.5 Slip in Single Crystals 223 7.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Materials 226 7.7 Deformation by Twinning 228 MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN METALS 229 7.8 Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction 229 7.9 Solid-Solution Strengthening 231 7.10 Strain Hardening 232 RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN GROWTH 235 7.11 Recovery 235 7.12 Recrystallization 236 7.13 Grain Growth 240 Summary 242 Equation Summary 244 List of Symbols 244 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 245 Important Terms and Concepts 246 References 246 Questions and Problems 246 Design Problems 250 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 250 8. Failure 251 Learning Objectives 252 8.1 Introduction 252 FRACTURE 253 8.2 Fundamentals of Fracture 253 8.3 Ductile Fracture 253 8.4 Brittle Fracture 255 8.5 Principles of Fracture Mechanics 257 8.6 Fracture Toughness Testing 265 FATIGUE 270 8.7 Cyclic Stresses 270 8.8 The S–N Curve 272 8.9 Crack Initiation and Propagation 276 8.10 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life 278 8.11 Environmental Effects 280 CREEP 281 8.12 Generalized Creep Behavior 281 8.13 Stress and Temperature Effects 282 8.14 Data Extrapolation Methods 285 8.15 Alloys for High-Temperature Use 286 Summary 287 Equation Summary 290 List of Symbols 290 Important Terms and Concepts 291 References 291 Questions and Problems 291 Design Problems 295 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 296 9. Phase Diagrams 297 Learning Objectives 298 9.1 Introduction 298 DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS 298 9.2 Solubility Limit 299 9.3 Phases 300 9.4 Microstructure 300 9.5 Phase Equilibria 300 9.6 One-Component (or Unary) Phase Diagrams 301 BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS 302 9.7 Binary Isomorphous Systems 303 9.8 Interpretation of Phase Diagrams 305 9.9 Development of Microstructure in Isomorphous Alloys 309 9.10 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous Alloys 312 9.11 Binary Eutectic Systems 312 9.12 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys 318 Materials of Importance—Lead-Free Solders 319 9.13 Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate Phases or Compounds 325 9.14 Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions 328 9.15 Congruent Phase Transformations 329 9.16 Ceramic and Ternary Phase Diagrams 330 9.17 The Gibbs Phase Rule 330 THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM 333 9.18 The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C) Phase Diagram 333 9.19 Development of Microstructure in Iron–Carbon Alloys 336 9.20 The Influence of Other Alloying Elements 344 Summary 344 Equation Summary 346 List of Symbols 347 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 347 Important Terms and Concepts 349 References 349 Questions and Problems 349 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 355 10. Phase Transformations: Development of Microstructure and Alteration of Mechanical Properties 356 Learning Objectives 357 10.1 Introduction 357 PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS 357 10.2 Basic Concepts 357 10.3 The Kinetics of Phase Transformations 358 10.4 Metastable Versus Equilibrium States 369 MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES IN IRON–CARBON ALLOYS 370 10.5 Isothermal Transformation Diagrams 370 10.6 Continuous-Cooling Transformation Diagrams 381 10.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon Alloys 384 10.8 Tempered Martensite 388 10.9 Review of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties for Iron–Carbon Alloys 391 Materials of Importance—Shape-Memory Alloys 394 Summary 397 Equation Summary 398 List of Symbols 399 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 399 Important Terms and Concepts 401 References 402 Questions and Problems 402 Design Problems 406 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 406 11. Applications and Processing of Metal Alloys 408 Learning Objectives 409 11.1 Introduction 409 TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS 410 11.2 Ferrous Alloys 410 11.3 Nonferrous Alloys 422 Materials of Importance—Metal Alloys Used for Euro Coins 433 FABRICATION OF METALS 434 11.4 Forming Operations 434 11.5 Casting 436 11.6 Miscellaneous Techniques 437 THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS 439 11.7 Annealing Processes 439 11.8 Heat Treatment of Steels 441 11.9 Precipitation Hardening 451 Summary 458 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 460 Important Terms and Concepts 460 References 463 Questions and Problems 463 Design Problems 464 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 466 12. Structures and Properties of Ceramics 467 Learning Objectives 468 12.1 Introduction 468 CERAMIC STRUCTURES 468 12.2 Crystal Structures 469 12.3 Silicate Ceramics 477 12.4 Carbon 481 12.5 Imperfections in Ceramics 482 12.6 Diffusion in Ionic Materials 486 12.7 Ceramic Phase Diagrams 487 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 490 12.8 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics 491 12.9 Stress–Strain Behavior 495 12.10 Mechanisms of Plastic Deformation 497 12.11 Miscellaneous Mechanical Considerations 499 Summary 501 Equation Summary 503 List of Symbols 503 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 503 Important Terms and Concepts 504 References 505 Questions and Problems 505 Design Problems 509 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 509 13. Applications and Processing of Ceramics 510 Learning Objectives 511 13.1 Introduction 511 TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF CERAMICS 512 13.2 Glasses 512 13.3 Glass–Ceramics 512 13.4 Clay Products 514 13.5 Refractories 514 13.6 Abrasives 516 13.7 Cements 517 13.8 Carbons 518 13.9 Advanced Ceramics 521 FABRICATION AND PROCESSING OF CERAMICS 525 13.10 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and Glass–Ceramics 526 13.11 Fabrication and Processing of Clay Products 531 13.12 Powder Pressing 535 13.13 Tape Casting 537 Summary 538 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 540 Important Terms and Concepts 542 References 543 Questions and Problems 543 Design Problem 544 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 544 14. Polymer Structures 545 Learning Objectives 546 14.1 Introduction 546 14.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules 546 14.3 Polymer Molecules 549 14.4 The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules 549 14.5 Molecular Weight 553 14.6 Molecular Shape 556 14.7 Molecular Structure 558 14.8 Molecular Configurations 559 14.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers 562 14.10 Copolymers 563 14.11 Polymer Crystallinity 564 14.12 Polymer Crystals 568 14.13 Defects in Polymers 570 14.14 Diffusion in Polymeric Materials 571 Summary 573 Equation Summary 575 List of Symbols 575 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 575 Important Terms and Concepts 576 References 576 Questions and Problems 577 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 579 15. Characteristics, Applications, and Processing of Polymers 580 Learning Objectives 581 15.1 Introduction 581 MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYMERS 581 15.2 Stress–Strain Behavior 581 15.3 Macroscopic Deformation 584 15.4 Viscoelastic Deformation 584 15.5 Fracture of Polymers 588 15.6 Miscellaneous Mechanical Characteristics 590 MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS 591 15.7 Deformation of Semicrystalline Polymers 591 15.8 Factors That Influence the Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers 593 Materials of Importance—Shrink-Wrap Polymer Films 597 15.9 Deformation of Elastomers 597 CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING, AND GLASSTRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS 599 15.10 Crystallization 600 15.11 Melting 601 15.12 The Glass Transition 601 15.13 Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures 601 15.14 Factors That Influence Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures 603 POLYMER TYPES 605 15.15 Plastics 605 Materials of Importance—Phenolic Billiard Balls 607 15.16 Elastomers 608 15.17 Fibers 610 15.18 Miscellaneous Applications 610 15.19 Advanced Polymeric Materials 612 POLYMER SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING 616 15.20 Polymerization 616 15.21 Polymer Additives 618 15.22 Forming Techniques for Plastics 620 15.23 Fabrication of Elastomers 622 15.24 Fabrication of Fibers and Films 622 Summary 624 Equation Summary 626 List of Symbols 626 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 626 Important Terms and Concepts 629 References 629 Questions and Problems 629 Design Questions 633 Fundamentals of Engineering Question 633 16. Composites 634 Learning Objectives 635 16.1 Introduction 635 PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 637 16.2 Large-Particle Composites 637 16.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites 641 FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 642 16.4 Influence of Fiber Length 642 16.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and Concentration 643 16.6 The Fiber Phase 651 16.7 The Matrix Phase 653 16.8 Polymer-Matrix Composites 653 16.9 Metal-Matrix Composites 659 16.10 Ceramic-Matrix Composites 660 16.11 Carbon–Carbon Composites 662 16.12 Hybrid Composites 662 16.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites 663 STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES 665 16.14 Laminar Composites 665 16.15 Sandwich Panels 667 Case Study—Use of Composites in the Boeing 787 Dreamliner 669 16.16 Nanocomposites 670 Summary 673 Equation Summary 675 List of Symbols 676 Important Terms and Concepts 676 References 676 Questions and Problems 676 Design Problems 679 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 680 17. Corrosion and Degradation of Materials 681 Learning Objectives 682 17.1 Introduction 682 CORROSION OF METALS 683 17.2 Electrochemical Considerations 683 17.3 Corrosion Rates 689 17.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates 691 17.5 Passivity 698 17.6 Environmental Effects 699 17.7 Forms of Corrosion 699 17.8 Corrosion Environments 707 17.9 Corrosion Prevention 707 17.10 Oxidation 709 CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS 712 DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS 713 17.11 Swelling and Dissolution 713 17.12 Bond Rupture 715 17.13 Weathering 716 Summary 717 Equation Summary 719 List of Symbols 719 Important Terms and Concepts 720 References 720 Questions and Problems 721 Design Problems 723 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 724 18. Electrical Properties 725 Learning Objectives 726 18.1 Introduction 726 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION 726 18.2 Ohm’s Law 726 18.3 Electrical Conductivity 727 18.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction 728 18.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids 728 18.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding Models 730 18.7 Electron Mobility 732 18.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals 733 18.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial Alloys 736 Materials of Importance—Aluminum Electrical Wires 736 SEMICONDUCTIVITY 738 18.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction 738 18.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction 741 18.12 The Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentration 744 18.13 Factors That Affect Carrier Mobility 745 18.14 The Hall Effect 749 18.15 Semiconductor Devices 751 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS AND IN POLYMERS 757 18.16 Conduction in Ionic Materials 758 18.17 Electrical Properties of Polymers 758 DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR 759 18.18 Capacitance 759 18.19 Field Vectors and Polarization 761 18.20 Types of Polarization 764 18.21 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant 766 18.22 Dielectric Strength 767 18.23 Dielectric Materials 767 OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS 767 18.24 Ferroelectricity 767 18.25 Piezoelectricity 768 Materials of Importance—Piezoelectric Ceramic Ink-Jet Printer Heads 769 Summary 770 Equation Summary 773 List of Symbols 774 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 774 Important Terms and Concepts 778 References 778 Questions and Problems 778 Design Problems 782 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 783 19. Thermal Properties 785 Learning Objectives 786 19.1 Introduction 786 19.2 Heat Capacity 786 19.3 Thermal Expansion 790 Materials of Importance—Invar and Other Low-Expansion Alloys 792 19.4 Thermal Conductivity 793 19.5 Thermal Stresses 796 Summary 798 Equation Summary 799 List of Symbols 799 Important Terms and Concepts 800 References 800 Questions and Problems 800 Design Problems 802 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 802 20. Magnetic Properties 803 Learning Objectives 804 20.1 Introduction 804 20.2 Basic Concepts 804 20.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism 808 20.4 Ferromagnetism 810 20.5 Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism 811 20.6 The Influence of Temperature on Magnetic Behavior 815 20.7 Domains and Hysteresis 816 20.8 Magnetic Anisotropy 819 20.9 Soft Magnetic Materials 820 Materials of Importance—An Iron–Silicon Alloy Used in Transformer Cores 821 20.10 Hard Magnetic Materials 822 20.11 Magnetic Storage 825 20.12 Superconductivity 828 Summary 831 Equation Summary 833 List of Symbols 833 Important Terms and Concepts 834 References 834 Questions and Problems 834 Design Problems 837 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 837 21. Optical Properties 838 Learning Objectives 839 21.1 Introduction 839 BASIC CONCEPTS 839 21.2 Electromagnetic Radiation 839 21.3 Light Interactions with Solids 841 21.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions 842 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS 843 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS 844 21.5 Refraction 844 21.6 Reflection 846 21.7 Absorption 846 21.8 Transmission 850 21.9 Color 850 21.10 Opacity and Translucency in Insulators 852 APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA 853 21.11 Luminescence 853 21.12 Photoconductivity 853 Materials of Importance—Light-Emitting Diodes 854 21.13 Lasers 856 21.14 Optical Fibers in Communications 860 Summary 862 Equation Summary 864 List of Symbols 865 Important Terms and Concepts 865 References 865 Questions and Problems 866 Design Problem 867 Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 867 22. Economic, Environmental, and Societal Issues in Materials Science and Engineering 868 Learning Objectives 869 22.1 Introduction 869 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS 869 22.2 Component Design 870 22.3 Materials 870 22.4 Manufacturing Techniques 870 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIETAL CONSIDERATIONS 871 22.5 Recycling Issues in Materials Science and Engineering 873 Materials of Importance—Biodegradable and Biorenewable Polymers/Plastics 876 Summary 878 References 879 Design Questions 879 Appendix A The International System of Units (SI) 880 Appendix B Properties of Selected Engineering Materials 882 B.1 Density 882 B.2 Modulus of Elasticity 885 B.3 Poisson’s Ratio 889 B.4 Strength and Ductility 890 B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness 895 B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 897 B.7 Thermal Conductivity 900 B.8 Specific Heat 903 B.9 Electrical Resistivity 906 B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions 909 Appendix C Costs and Relative Costs for Selected Engineering Materials 911 Appendix D Repeat Unit Structures for Common Polymers 916 Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting Temperatures for Common Polymeric Materials 920 Glossary 921 Answers to Selected Problems 934 Index 939

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