Test bank for General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications 10th edition by Ralph H. Petrucci

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Test bank for General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications 10th edition by Ralph H. Petrucci

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Description Test bank for General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications 10th edition by Ralph H. Petrucci Table of Contents 1 MATTER–ITS PROPERTIES AND MEASUREMENT 1-1 The Scientific Method 1-2 Properties of Matter 1-3 Classification of Matter 1-4 Measurement of Matter: SI (Metric) Units 1-5 Density and Percent Composition: Their Use in Problem Solving 1-6 Uncertainties in Scientific Measurements 1-7 Significant Figures 2 ATOMS AND THE ATOMIC THEORY 2-1 Early Chemical Discoveries and the Atomic Theory 2-2 Electrons and Other Discoveries in Atomic Physics 2-3 The Nuclear Atom 2-4 Chemical Elements 2-5 Atomic Mass 2-6 Introduction to the Periodic Table 2-7 The Concept of the Mole and the Avogadro Constant 2-8 Using the Mole Concept in Calculations 3 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS 3-1 Types of Chemical Compounds and their Formulas 3-2 The Mole Concept and Chemical Compounds 3-3 Composition of Chemical Compounds 3-4 Oxidation States: A Useful Tool in Describing Chemical Compounds 3-5 Naming Compounds: Organic and Inorganic Compounds 3-6 Names and Formulas of Inorganic Compounds 3-7 Names and Formulas of Organic Compounds 4 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4-1 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations 4-2 Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry 4-3 Chemical Reactions in Solution 4-4 Determining the Limiting Reactant 4-5 Other Practical Matters in Reaction Stoichiometry 5 INTRODUCTION TO REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS 5-1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions 5-2 Precipitation Reactions 5-3 Acid-Base Reactions 5-4 Oxidation-Reduction: Some General Principles 5-5 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 5-6 Oxidizing and Reducing Agents 5-7 Stoichiometry of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Titrations 6 GASES 6-1 Properties of Gases: Gas Pressure 6-2 The Simple Gas Laws 6-3 Combining the Gas Laws: The Ideal Gas Equation and the General Gas Equation 6-4 Applications of the Ideal Gas Equation 6-5 Gases in Chemical Reactions 6-6 Mixtures of Gases 6-7 Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases 6-8 Gas Properties Relating to the Kinetic-Molecular Theory 6-9 Nonideal (Real) Gases 7 THERMOCHEMISTRY 7-1 Getting Started: Some Terminology 7-2 Heat 7-3 Heats of Reaction and Calorimetry 7-4 Work 7-5 The First Law of Thermodynamics 7-6 Heats of Reaction: ΔU and ΔH 7-7 Indirect Determination of ΔH: Hess’s Law 7-8 Standard Enthalpies of Formation 7-9 Fuels as Sources of Energy 8 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS 8-1 Electromagnetic Radiation 8-2 Atomic Spectra 8-3 Quantum Theory 8-4 The Bohr Atom 8-5 Two Ideas Leading to a New Quantum Mechanics 8-6 Wave Mechanics 8-7 Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals 8-8 Interpreting and Representing the Orbitals of the Hydrogen Atom 8-9 Electron Spin: A Fourth Quantum Number 8-10 Multielectron Atoms 8-11 Electron Configurations 8-12 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 9 THE PERIODIC TABLE AND SOME ATOMIC PROPERTIES 9-1 Classifying the Elements: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table 9-2 Metals and Nonmetals and their Ions 9-3 Sizes of Atoms and Ions 9-4 Ionization Energy 9-5 Electron Affinity 9-6 Magnetic Properties 9-7 Periodic Properties of the Elements 10 CHEMICAL BONDING I: BASIC CONCEPTS 10-1 Lewis Theory: An Overview 10-2 Covalent Bonding: An Introduction 10-3 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electrostatic Potential Maps 10-4 Writing Lewis Structures 10-5 Resonance 10-6 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 10-7 Shapes of Molecules 10-8 Bond Order and Bond Lengths 10-9 Bond Energies 11 CHEMICAL BONDING II: ADDITIONAL ASPECTS 11-1 What a Bonding Theory Should Do 11-2 Introduction to the Valence-Bond Method 11-3 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals 11-4 Multiple Covalent Bonds 11-5 Molecular Orbital Theory 11-6 Delocalized Electrons: Bonding in the Benzene Molecule 11-7 Bonding in Metals 11-8 Some Unresolved Issues; Can Electron Charge-Density Plots Help? 12 INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS 12-1 Intermolecular Forces 12-2 Some Properties of Liquids 12-3 Some Properties of Solids 12-4 Phase Diagrams 12-5 Network Covalent Solids and Ionic Solids 12-6 Crystal Structures 12-7 Energy Changes in the Formation of Ionic Crystals 13 SOLUTIONS AND THEIR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 13-1 Types of Solutions: Some Terminology 13-2 Solution Concentration 13-3 Intermolecular Forces and the Solution Process 13-4 Solution Formation and Equilibrium 13-5 Solubilities of Gases 13-6 Vapor Pressures of Solutions 13-7 Osmotic Pressure 13-8 Freezing-Point Depression and Boiling-Point Elevation of Nonelectrolyte Solutions 13-9 Solutions of Electrolytes 13-10 Colloidal Mixtures 14 CHEMICAL KINETICS 14-1 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction 14-2 Measuring Reaction Rates 14-3 Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rates: The Rate Law 14-4 Zero-Order Reactions 14-5 First-Order Reactions 14-6 Second-Order Reactions 14-7 Reaction Kinetics: A Summary 14-8 Theoretical Models for Chemical Kinetics 14-9 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates 14-10 Reaction Mechanisms 14-11 Catalysis 15 PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 15-1 Dynamic Equilibrium 15-2 The Equilibrium Constant Expression 15-3 Relationships Involving Equilibrium Constants 15-4 The Magnitude of an Equilibrium Constant 15-5 The Reaction Quotient, Q: Predicting The Direction of Net Change 15-6 Altering Equilibrium Conditions: Le Châtelier’s Principle 15-7 Equilibrium Calculations: Some Illustrative Examples 16 ACIDS AND BASES 16-1 Arrhenius Theory: A Brief Review 16-2 Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases 16-3 Self-Ionization of Water and the pH Scale 16-4 Strong Acids and Strong Bases 16-5 Weak Acids and Weak Bases 16-6 Polyprotic Acids 16-7 Ions as Acids and Bases 16-8 Molecular Structure and Acid-Base Behavior 16-9 Lewis Acids and Bases 17 ADDITIONAL ASPECTS OF ACID—BASE EQUILIBRIA 17-1 Common-Ion Effect in Acid-Base Equilibria 17-2 Buffer Solutions 17-3 Acid-Base Indicators 17-4 Neutralization Reactions and Titration Curves 17-5 Solutions of Salts of Polyprotic Acids 17-6 Acid-Base Equilibrium Calculations: A Summary 18 SOLUBILITY AND COMPLEX-ION EQUILIBRIA 18-1 Solubility Product Constant, Ksp 18-2 Relationship Between Solubility and Ksp 18-3 Common-Ion Effect in Solubility Equilibria 18-4 Limitations of the Ksp Concept 18-5 Criteria for Precipitation and its Completeness 18-6 Fractional Precipitation 18-7 Solubility and pH 18-8 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions 18-9 Qualitative Cation Analysis 19 SPONTANEOUS CHANGE: ENTROPY AND Gibbs ENERGY 19-1 Spontaneity: The Meaning of Spontaneous Change 19-2 The Concept of Entropy 19-3 Evaluating Entropy and Entropy Changes 19-4 Criteria for Spontaneous Change: The Second Law of Thermodynamics 19-5 Standard Gibbs Energy Change, ΔG° 19-6 Gibbs Energy Change and Equilibrium 19-7 ΔG° and K as Functions of Temperature 19-8 Coupled Reactions 20 ELECTROCHEMISTRY 20-1 Electrode Potentials and their Measurement 20-2 Standard Electrode Potentials 20-3 Ecell, ΔG, and K 20-4 Ecell as a Function of Concentrations 20-5 Batteries: Producing Electricity Through Chemical Reactions 20-6 Corrosion: Unwanted Voltaic Cells 20-7 Electrolysis: Causing Nonspontaneous Reactions to Occur 20-8 Industrial Electrolysis Processes 21 CHEMISTRY OF THE MAIN-GROUP ELEMENTS I: GROUPS 1, 2, 13, AND 14 21-1 Periodic Trends and Charge Density 21-2 Group 1: The Alkali Metals 21-3 Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals 21-4 Group 13: The Boron Family 21-5 Group 14: The Carbon Family 22 CHEMISTRY OF THE MAIN-GROUP ELEMENTS II: GROUPS 18, 17, 16, 15, AND HYDROGEN 22-1 Periodic Trends in Bonding 22-2 Group 18: The Noble Gases 22-3 Group 17: The Halogens 22-4 Group 16: The Oxygen Family 22-5 Group 15: The Nitrogen Family 22-6 Hydrogen: A Unique Element 23 THE TRANSITION ELEMENTS 23-1 General Properties 23-2 Principles of Extractive Metallurgy 23-3 Metallurgy of Iron and Steel 23-4 First-Row Transition Metal Elements: Scandium to Manganese 23-5 The Iron Triad: Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel 23-6 Group 11: Copper, Silver, and Gold 23-7 Group 12: Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury 23-8 Lanthanides 23-9 High-Temperature Superconductors 24 COMPLEX IONS AND COORDINATION COMPOUNDS 24-1 Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds: An Overview 24-2 Ligands 24-3 Nomenclature 24-4 Isomerism 24-5 Bonding in Complex Ions: Crystal Field Theory 24-6 Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds and Crystal Field Theory 24-7 Color and the Colors of Complexes 24-8 Aspects of Complex-Ion Equilibria 24-9 Acid-Base Reactions of Complex Ions 24-10 Some Kinetic Considerations 24-11 Applications of Coordination Chemistry 25 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 25-1 Radioactivity 25-2 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Isotopes 25-3 Nuclear Reactions and Artificially Induced Radioactivity 25-4 Transuranium Elements 25-5 Rate of Radioactive Decay 25-6 Energetics of Nuclear Reactions 25-7 Nuclear Stability 25-8 Nuclear Fission 25-9 Nuclear Fusion 25-10 Effect of Radiation on Matter 25-11 Applications of Radioisotopes 26 STRUCTURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 26-1 Organic Compounds and Structures: An Overview 26-2 Alkanes 26-3 Cycloalkanes 26-4 Stereoisomerism in Organic Compounds 26-5 Alkenes and Alkynes 26-6 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 26-7 Organic Compounds Containing Functional Groups 26-8 From Molecular Formula to Molecular Structure 27 REACTIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 27-1 Organic Reactions: An Introduction 27-2 Organic Acids and Bases 27-3 Introduction to Substitution Reactions 27-4 Introduction to Elimination Reactions 27-5 Reactions of Alcohols 27-6 Introduction to Addition Reactions: Reactions of Alkenes 27-7 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution 27-8 Nitration: Substitution of −H with −NO2 27-9 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives: The Addition—Elimination Mechanism 27-10 Reactions of Alkanes 27-11 Polymers and Polymerization Reactions 27-12 Synthesis of Organic Compounds 28 CHEMISTRY OF THE LIVING STATE 28-1 Chemical Structure of Living Matter: An Overview 28-2 Lipids 28-3 Carbohydrates 28-4 Proteins 28-5 Aspects of Metabolism 28-6 Nucleic Acids APPENDIXES A Mathematical Operations B Some Basic Physical Concepts C SI Units D Data Tables: Table D.1 Ground-State Electron Configurations Table D.2 Thermodynamic Properties of Substances at 298.15 K Table D.3 Equilibrium Constants Table D.4 Standard Electrode (Reduction) Potentials at 25ÚC Table D.5 Isotopic Masses and their Abundance E Concept Maps F Glossary G Answers to Concept Assessment Questions

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